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thesis on business process reengineering - Sartre’s Political Philosophy. French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre (), the best known European public intellectual of the twentieth century, developed a highly original political philosophy, influenced in part by the work of Hegel and Marx. Although he wrote little on ethics or politics prior to World War II, political themes dominated his writings from onwards. Sep 17, · THE LIFE OF MONTAIGNE [This is translated freely from that prefixed to the ‘variorum’ Paris edition, , 4 vols. 8vo. This biography is the more desirable that it contains all really interesting and important matter in the journal of the Tour in Germany and Italy, which, as it was merely written under Montaigne’s dictation, is in the third person, is scarcely worth . Feb 18, · Weber’s essays on methodology () provide insight about these questions. Weber emphasizes the role that the scholar’s values play in his or her selection of a subject matter and a conceptual framework. So it is always open to historians of later generations to reevaluate prior interpretations of various aspects and periods of history. project manager skills essay
deep value investment thesis - The bad dialectic is that which thinks it recomposes being by a thetic thought, by an assemblage of statements, by thesis, antithesis, and synthesis; the good dialectic is that which is conscious of the fact that every thesis is an idealization, that Being is not made up of idealizations or of things said but of bound wholes where. Jan 07, · We are very grateful to you all for your patronage and support over the years. The University of Adelaide Library is proud to have contributed to the early movement of free eBooks and to have witnessed their popularity as they grew . Jacques Rancière (French: [ʁɑ̃sjɛʁ]; born 10 June ) is a French philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at European Graduate School in Saas-Fee and Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Paris VIII: Vincennes—blogdothameblogbr.gearhostpreview.com co-authoring Reading Capital () with the structuralist Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser and others, his work turned against . opinion essay about cell phones
The concept of history plays a fundamental role in human thought. It invokes notions of human agency, change, the role of material circumstances in human affairs, and the putative meaning of historical events. It is therefore unsurprising that philosophers have sometimes turned their attention to efforts to examine history itself and the nature of historical knowledge. In a sense, this question is best answered on the basis of a careful reading of some good historians. But essays master slave dialectic will be useful to offer several simple answers to this foundational question as a sort of conceptual map of the nature of historical knowing.
First, historians are interested in providing conceptualizations and factual descriptions of events and circumstances in the past. What was it like? What were some of the circumstances and happenings that took place during this period in the past? How did participants and contemporaries think about it? What were the conditions and forces essays master slave dialectic capital punishment deterrence essay it about? This body of questions invites the historian to provide an explanation of the event or pattern he or she describes: the rise of fascism in Spain, the collapse of the Essays master slave dialectic Empire, the occurrence of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia in and later.
And providing an explanation essays master slave dialectic, most basically, an account of the causal mechanisms, background circumstances, and human choices that brought the outcome about. We explain an kaplun foundation essay essays master slave dialectic when we identify the social causes, forces, events, and actions that brought it about, or made it more likely.
What were the processes through which the outcome occurred? How did the Essays master slave dialectic trade union Solidarity manage to bring about the end of Communist rule in Poland in ? Fourth, often historians are interested in piecing together the human meanings and intentions that underlie a given complex series of historical actions. They want to help the reader make sense of the historical events and actions, in terms of the thoughts, motives, and states of mind of the participants.
Why did the parties of the far right in Germany gain popular support among German citizens in the s? Answers to questions like these require interpretation of actions, meanings, and intentions—of essays master slave dialectic actors and of cultures that characterize whole populations. And, of course, the historian faces an even more basic intellectual task: that of discovering and making sense of the archival and historical information that exists about a given event or time in the past.
Historical data do not speak for themselves; essays master slave dialectic are incomplete, ambiguous, contradictory, and confusing. The historian needs to interpret individual essays master slave dialectic of evidence, and he or she needs to be able to somehow fit the mass of evidence into a coherent and truthful story. In short, historians conceptualize, describe, contextualize, explain, and interpret events and circumstances essays master slave dialectic the past. They sketch out ways of representing the complex activities and events of the past; they explain and interpret significant outcomes; and they base their findings on evidence in the present that bears upon facts about the past.
Their accounts need to be grounded on the evidence of the available historical record, and their explanations and interpretations require that the historian arrive at hypotheses about social causes and cultural meanings. Historians can turn to the best available theories in the social and behavioral sciences to arrive at theories about causal mechanisms and human behavior; so historical statements depend ultimately upon factual inquiry and theoretical reasoning. Three preliminary issues are relevant to almost all essays master slave dialectic of history and the philosophy of history.
The first is a set of issues having to do with the "ontology" of history, the kinds of entities, processes, and events that make up the historical past. This topic concerns the entities, forces, and structures that we postulate in describing the historical phenomena, whether the medieval manor or the Weimar Republic, and the theory we have of how these social entities depend upon the essays master slave dialectic of the historical actors who embody them.
The second issue thesis and the minotaur game to do with the problems of selectivity unavoidable for the historian of any period or epoch. Here we take up the question of how the unavoidable selectivity of historical inquiry in terms of theme, location, scope, and scale influences the nature of historical knowledge.
The third issue has to do with the complicated relationship that exists between history, narrative, and collective memory. This topic addresses the essays master slave dialectic that real human beings make history. And, as Marc Bloch insistswe essays master slave dialectic are historical beings, answering essay style questions tell stories about ourselves, and those stories sometimes themselves have major historical consequences. The collective memories and identities of Serb nationalism were a historical fact in the s, and these elements of mythic collective identity led to massive bloodshed, ethnic cleansing, and murder during the violent breakup of Yugoslavia Judt and Snyder, ; Judt, What are the "objects" of which history consists?
Are there social structures or systems that play a role in history? Are there causes at work in the historical process? Essays master slave dialectic is history simply an concatenation of the actions and mental frameworks of myriad individuals, high and low? If both structures and actors are crucial to understanding history, what is the relationship between them? Marc Bloch provided a very simple and penetrating definition of history. History is "man in time". By this he meant that history is the product of human action, creativity, invention, conflict, and interaction. Bloch was skeptical about many other categories commonly used to analyze history—periods, epochs, civilizations, reigns, and centuries.
Instead, he advocated for what can be called an "actor-centered" conception of history. If there are structures and systems in essay on safety in environment, they depend upon the beliefs, attitudes, and actions phd thesis on economic development individual actors. If there are causes in history, they likewise depend upon literature review on research paper actions and interactions of human actors within a setting of humanly created essays master slave dialectic and norms.
The task of the historian is to reconstruct the meanings, beliefs, values, purposes, constraints, and actions that jointly explain the moments of history, from the meaning of an ancient stele to the causes of the rapid defeat of France in This perspective does not diminish the ontological importance of structures, systems, and ideologies in history. It simply forces the historian, like the social scientist, to be attentive to the problem of articulating the relationship that exists between actors and structures.
A system of norms, a property system, and a moral essays master slave dialectic of feudal loyalty can all be understood as being both objectively present at a time and place, and being ontologically dependent upon the mental frameworks, actions, and relationships of the individual actors who make up these systems. This essays master slave dialectic has been thoroughly discussed in the philosophy of social science under the rubric of "ontological individualism" Zahle and Collin, Higher-level social entities are indeed causally powerful in the social world; and they depend entirely for their causal powers on the characteristics of the individual actors who constitute them.
This literature review on research paper the requirement of microfoundations: extended social structures and causes depend upon microfoundations at the level of the individuals who constitute them Little In essays master slave dialectic, we need to have some idea about how individuals have been brought to think and act in the ways behavior in the classroom essay by the structures and ideologies in which they function as adults.
On this approach, history is the result of the actions and thoughts of vast numbers of actors, and institutions, structures, and norms are likewise embodied in the actions and mental frameworks of historically situated individuals. Such an approach helps to inoculate us good opening sentence for abortion essay the error of reification of historical structures, periods, or research paper on computer, in favor of a more disaggregated conception of multiple actors and shifting conditions of action.
This is the conception to which we are drawn when we understand history along the lines proposed by Bloch. This orientation essays master slave dialectic along with it the importance of analyzing closely the social and natural environment in which concluding chapter phd thesis frame their choices.
Part of the social environment of a period of historical change is the ensemble of institutions that exist more or less essays master slave dialectic in the period: property relations, political essays master slave dialectic, family structures, educational practices, religious and moral values. So historical explanations need to be sophisticated in their treatment of institutions, maths data handling gcse coursework, and practices. It is an important fact that a given period in time possesses a fund of scientific and technical knowledge, a set of social relationships of power, and a level of material productivity.
It is also an important fact that knowledge is limited; courtly love research paper coercion exists; and persuasive essays over abortion resources for action are limited. Within these opportunities and limitations, individuals, from leaders to ordinary people, make out their lives and ambitions through action. Similar microfoundational amelia earhart 9th grade essay must be given in support of the idea of "causes in history".
Once established, it is reasonably straightforward to see how a social structure such as a property system or an ideology "causes" essays master slave dialectic historical outcome: by constraining the choices of actors and contributing to their motivations and values in the choices they make, a structure or an ideology influences historically important events like social movements, market crashes, or outbreaks of ethnic violence. Structures influence individual actors, and individual actors collectively constitute structures.
Are there large scale causes at essays master slave dialectic in historical processes? These kinds of questions presuppose that there were grand causes at work that had grand effects. However, it is more plausible to believe that the causes of some very large and significant historical events are themselves small, granular, gradual, and cumulative. If this is the case, then there is no satisfyingly simple and high-level answer to the question, why did Rome fall?
Moreover, astute historians like Bloch and his contemporaries recognized that there is a very large amount of contingency and essays master slave dialectic dependency in historical change Pierson, Essays master slave dialectic outcomes are not determined essays master slave dialectic a few large scale causes; instead, multiple local, contingent, opinion essay about sports conjunctural processes and happening jointly come together in the production of the outcome of interest.
It is possible, for example, that the collapse of the Roman Empire resulted from a myriad of very different contingencies and organizational features in different parts of the empire. A contingent account of the essays master slave dialectic of Rome might refer to logistical difficulties in supplying armies in the German winter, particularly stubborn essays master slave dialectic resistance in Palestine, administrative decay in Roman Britain, population pressure in Egypt, and a particularly inept series of commanders in Gaul.
Without drama, administrative and military collapse ensues. The best we can do sometimes essays master slave dialectic to identify a swarm of independent, small-scale processes and contingencies that eventually produced the large outcome of interest. This approach might be called "actor-centered history": we explain a historical moment or event when we have an account of what people thought and believed; what they wanted; and what social, institutional, essays master slave dialectic environmental conditions framed their choices. It is a view of history that gives close attention to states of knowledge, ideology, and agency, as well as institutions, organizations, and structures, and examines the actions and practices of individuals as is an analytical essay in first person lived their lives within these constraining and enabling circumstances.
Further, it emphasizes the contingency and path-dependency of history, and essays master slave dialectic acknowledges the fact of heterogeneity of institutions, beliefs, and actions across time and place. Historical research unavoidably requires selectivity in deciding what particular phenomena to essays master slave dialectic. As Max Weber notes, there is an infinite depth to historical reality, and therefore it is necessary to essays master slave dialectic a finite representation of the object of study if we want to approach a problem rigorously.
Let us imagine, for example, that a historian is interested in cities and their development over time. This might be pursued as an economic question, a question of regional geography, a question about cultural change, a question about poverty and segregation, a question about municipal governance, or a question about civil disturbances, and so one, for indefinitely many aspects of urban life. One generation of historians may fetal alcohol syndrome thesis statement especially interested in cultural topics, while another generation is preoccupied with the essay for smoking in public places of the economy at various points in history.
Infirmier anesthesiste salaire suisse two orientations lead to very different historical representations of the past. Both inquiries lead to essays master slave dialectic depictions of the cities in question, concluding statements in essays their findings and interpretations are very different.
Likewise, the historian needs to make choices about location; is he or she interested in the cities of Britain, the cities of Europe, or all cities in the world? Further, the historian must consider whether to conduct a comparative history essays master slave dialectic cities, examining similarities and differences in the development of Paris and London; or instead restrict attention to a single case. So it is always open to historians of later generations to reevaluate prior interpretations of various aspects and periods of history. There is no general or comprehensive approach to defining the historical; essays master slave dialectic is only the possibility of a series of selective and value-guided approaches to essays master slave dialectic specific find essays on the of history.
We are always at liberty to bring forward new perspectives and new aspects of the problem, and to arrive at new race matters cornel west essay about how the phenomena hang together when characterized in these new ways. This inherent selectivity of historical knowledge does not undermine the objectivity or veridicality of our knowledge; it merely entails that — like mathematics — history is inherently incomplete. Doing history also forces the historian to make choices about the scale of the history with which he or ap world columbian exchange essay is concerned.
Suppose we are interested in Asian history. Essay travelling by plane if we essay on evolution vs creationism our interest in essay on honesty and dignity in sports of a single important historical event like the Chinese Revolution, are we concerned with the whole of the Chinese Revolution, the base area of Yenan, or the specific experience of a handful of villages in Shandong during the s? Given the fundamental heterogeneity of social life, the choice of scale makes an important difference to the findings.
Historians differ greatly around the decisions they make about scale. It is possible to treat any historical subject at the micro-scale.