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reflection essay on english - World War One. But with Fischer going against George’s theory it brought much controversy from older historians as they had accepted his theory. But Fischer did get backing by some historians into believing that his thesis was correct. Fischer’s thesis is that Germany wanted to seek power on a par with countries that were strong in Europe. Fischer said that he believed Germany . The Fischer Thesis research papers are custom written and show how Fischer blamed Imperial Germany for the causes of World War I. In the most basic sense, Fritz Fischer, with his publication of Griff nach der Weltmacht (roughly translated as Germany’s Aims in the World War I), painted a most unflattering picture of Imperial Germany. The controversial . As to was an analysis of the long term political, economic and social circumstances that prevailed in pre-war Europe. The Fischer thesis fails to take into account that when examining the driving force of any war there are a multitude of causes both long . long does take write 1000 words essay
art education funding dissertation - The origins of World War One The Fritz Fisher thesis Fritz Fisher focuses on the Kaiser, Gottlieb von Jagow, Bethmann Hollweg and Helmut von Moltke. These four were the German leading figures at that time; Fischer is convinced that these people were responsible for the outbreak of World War One. Fischer’s three main claims were: 1. The Fischer thesis, the new revisionism and the meaning of the First World War JOHN C. G. RÖHL* International Affairs 1 () – My Scottish grandfather served in the British Army in the First World War, surviving the sinking of . Dec 10, · Fritz Fischer, the German historian who rankled his peers and Germans in general with the thesis that Imperial Germany was squarely responsible for World War I and its consequences, died on Dec. 1. writing an application letter for an internship
research paper assembly line - Germany's Aims in the First World War (German title: Griff nach der Weltmacht: Die Kriegzielpolitik des kaiserlichen Deutschland –) is a book by German Historian Fritz Fischer. It is one of the leading contributions to historical analysis of the Causes of World War I, and along with this work War of Illusions (Krieg der Illusionen) gave rise to the "Fischer Thesis" . Nov 30, · Fischer was the first German historian to publish documents showing that the German chancellor Dr. Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg had developed plans in to annex all of Belgium, part of France. The Fischer Controversy, the War Origins Debate and France: a non - history. The controversy that followed publication in of Fritz Fischer’s Griff nach der Weltmachtwas not restricted to West Germany. Even if the Fischer debate abroad did not acquire the vehemence it took on domestically, intellectually the effect was powerful. newspapers historical research
tuskegee research paper - Jan 29, · The first major challenge to this interpretation was advanced in Germany in the s, where the historian Fritz Fischer published a startling new thesis on the origins of the war which threatened to overthrow the existing consensus. Germany, he argued, bore the main share of responsibility for the outbreak of the war. Jan 15, · The interpretation that no one country was to blame prevailed until the s when a bitter international controversy, sparked by the work of the Hamburg historian Fritz Fischer, arrived at the consensus that the Great War had been a ‘bid for world power’ by imperial Germany and therefore a conflict in which Britain had necessarily and justly engaged. Mar 01, · As criticism continued, Fischer decided to present his subsequent archival findings concerning Germany's aggressive foreign policy and the origins of World War I in a second page tome, titled Krieg der Illusionen (, trans. , this time literally, War of Illusions). college common essay question
purchasing power parity big mac index essay - The Fischer thesis, the new revisionism and the meaning of the First World War JOHN C. G. RÖHL 1 Taught at the University of Sussex from until his retirement in , serving as Dean of the School of European Studies from to Dec 16, · The first reviews were in the daily Die Welt, 8 Nov. , by Bernd Nellesen, “Deutschland auf dem Weg zum ‘Platz an der Sonne,’” and in the Hamburg weekly Die Zeit, 17 Nov. , by Paul Sethe, “Als Deutschland nach der Weltmacht griff”—with the incorrect and misleading subtitle, “Professor Fischer's thesis of sole guilt for the First World War will still . Historians writing about the origins of World War I have differed over the relative emphasis they place upon the factors involved. Changes in historical arguments over time are in part related to the delayed availability of classified historical archives. The deepest distinction among historians remains between those who focus on the actions of Germany and Austria-Hungary as key and . residential school thesis statement
essay writer jobs uk - Sep 20, · The only people that regard Fischer's 'Germany's Aims in the First World War' as controversial are German historians. The book didn't have a theses statement as such,but his arguments have come to. The Fischer Thesis - The Fischer Thesis research papers are custom written and show how Fischer blamed Imperial Germany for the causes of World War I. German Aggression in WWI - German Aggression in WWI research papers look at Germany's isolationist policies and their aggressive invasion of Poland. Fischer Thesis World War 1 Moreover, at our academic service, we have our own plagiarism-detection software which is designed to find similarities between completed Fischer Thesis World War 1 papers and online sources. Fischer Thesis World War 1 You can be sure that our custom-written papers are original and properly cited/10(). goals education essay
best dissertation - But Fischer's thesis that Germany had caused the outbreak of the war was explosive. He had turned against the prevailing interpretation that Germany had fought a . Germany's Aims in the First World War (German title: Griff nach der Weltmacht: Die Kriegzielpolitik des kaiserlichen Deutschland –) is a book by German Historian Fritz blogdothameblogbr.gearhostpreview.com is one of the leading contributions to historical analysis of the causes of World War I, and along with this work War of Illusions (Krieg der Illusionen) gave rise to the "Fischer Thesis. First World War revisionist history, as promulgated during the Wilhelmine Reich, the Weimar Republic, and the Third Reich, directly led to the Second World War, and it still makes up much of the teaching of history today. Fischer did everything he could to protect the world from revisionist thinking. Many used copies of this book are blogdothameblogbr.gearhostpreview.coms: cover letter writers block
essay on importance of chemistry in agriculture - Fischer Thesis World War 1, cell phones in schools essay, boom essay writing, education cover letter assistant principal Why people choose blogdothameblogbr.gearhostpreview.com as best . The Fischer Controversy The publication in of Fritz Fischer book Germany 's Aims in the First World War, caused a wave of reactions from other historians and the general public. His claim angered German historians because it stated that Germany was solely responsible for the outbreak of World War I because they had “aggressive war aims. Nov 16, · The Fischer thesis relies on the idea that Germany was the key agent behind the war, but regardless of the debate over Germany’s intentions, it is clear that “[t]he initial decision for war was made in Vienna not Berlin.” ( 67) With this in mind, the modern view on the outbreak of war seriously diminishes Fischer’s thesis, which. goals education essay
define comparison and contrast essay - This concept was originally introduced by Franz Fischer in the late ’s in his Sonderweg Thesis. Fischer argued against conservative nationalist German Historians and stated that in addition to World War II, Germany was also solely responsible for World War I as well (Berghahn). Many people refuted Fischer’s thinking, however he argues that the war council meeting held . Fischer's major works on the origins of the First World War were published at a time when West-Germany, on the front line of the Cold War, was anxious to appear worthy of inclusion among the. The Origins of the First World War. DOI link for The Origins of the First World War. The Origins of the First World War book. Controversies and Consensus. The Origins of the First World War. DOI link for The Origins of the First World War. • Support for Fischer's conclusions. descriptive essay on a rainy day
mla thesis paper citation - First World War, Fischer controversy, historiography This article compares Fritz Fischer's academic critics on the one hand and the much more positive interpretation of Fischer's views by the media on the other. Thanks to wide media coverage the controversy about Fischer's views was much more publicized than any previous historical debate. a world war which would involve British participation as an enemy. - according to Fischer, the hawks regarded the first as highly desirable; the second was acceptable as they thought there was a good chance of winning and being able to achieve the agendas outlined above. - only the 3rd possibility produced any concern. Sep 11, · Contrast to Fischer’s approach, American historians predominantly focused on intelligence, weaponry, and war plans. 16 The latest trends regarding the exploration of the reasons for the First World War starting went as far as looking into topics such as nationalist ideologies, cultural determination of power politics, and economic integration.. Others wanted . thesis proposal slideshow
blanche tragic hero essay - First World War In the First World War broke out, it quickly became Stalemate on two fronts, when the German Schlieffen plan failed. This was a plan thought of by Count Von Schlieffen to invade France, the idea that the German's could swing round Paris capturing the City in six weeks and ending the war before the Russian's could mobilise. In 20th-century international relations: The search for causes. The German historian Fritz Fischer published a massive study of German war aims during –18 and held that Germany’s government, social elites, and even broad masses had consciously pursued a breakthrough to world power in the years before World War I and that the German government, fully aware. The publication of Fritz Fischer's book Germany's Aims in the First World War kicked off a major historical controversy that still rages to this day. Following years of archival research, Fischer's conclusion that Germany had entered WW1 with definite plans for expansionism which were actually extended, rather than curtailed, as the war progressed was political blogdothameblogbr.gearhostpreview.coms: 5. good narrative essay thesis
i hate writing essays yahoo - As Hastings, MacMillan and McMeekin point out, most historians nowadays regard the Fischer thesis about a pre German plan for world domination as too extreme. Fritz Fischer. Born: 5-Mar Birthplace: Ludwigstadt, Germany Died: 1-Dec Location of death: Hamburg, Germany Cause of death: unspecified Gender: Male Religion: Christian Race or Ethnicity: White Sexual orientation: Straight Occupation: Historian Nationality: Germany Executive summary: Blamed Germany for World War I Military service: German Army (WWII) German historian Fritz Fischer Born: Mar 05, This article examines Soviet and post-Soviet historiography on the origins of the Great War, paying special attention to the reverberations of western historiographical disputes in the Soviet Union and Russia. The author argues that Fischer’s thesis was mostly uncontroversial in Russia. 1995 ap biology essay rubric
american dream essay thesis - Hitler’s program of conquest in the East, Fischer makes clear, stemmed directly from World War I. His aims in the West were a revised version of those in World War I. Moreover, when England refused to make peace in , the plans of World War I for a German empire in Central Africa were immediately revived. World War One: 10 interpretations of who started WW1 In contrast to the historian Fritz Fischer who saw German war aims - in particular the . Fritz Fischer - In , Fischer published 'Germany's Aims in the First World War', which became known as the 'Fischer Thesis'. It suggested that policies of German aggression pre caused the war. college board ap biology essay
argumentative essay on blogging - May 18, · Fritz Fischer (March 5, – December 1, ) was a German historian best known for his analysis of the causes of World War I. Fischer has been described by The Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing as the most important German historian of the 20th blogdothameblogbr.gearhostpreview.com, John "Fischer, Fritz" pages from The Encyclopedia of Historians . Fritz Fischer, –99, German historian. Appointed professor at the Univ. of Hamburg in (emeritus after ), he became famous as the result of his book Griff nach der Weltmacht (; tr. Germany's Aims in the First World War, ). His controversial thesis held that Germany's bid for world power before and during World War I was the main cause of the . World War 1 Essay. Among all the disasters, caused by humanity, World War I was the first global disaster. It is known as “The Great War” because of its terrible consequences and all the pain and sorrow it brought to people. World War I started in and lasted four years. Four years of destruction and killing. help write a poem
easybib research ready - Fischer uses a document called "septmeber programme" that was issued by Bethman Holloweg (German chanchellor) in to support his thesis. The document outlines Germany's aim for world domination. Fischer claims that the document proved that the ruling elite in Germany had extreme expansionist aims, which a war would allow them to fulfill. cooperation. This thesis argues that the Railway strengthened relations between London and Berlin and became a hefty counter-weight to armed conflict. Historical literature on the origins of World War I often views colonial competition as a cause of the war. In. Germany's Aims in the First World War, Fritz Fischer argues that Germany's. professional writers for phd dissertation
As nations gear up to mark years since emerson essays start of World War One, academic argument still rages over which country was to blame for the conflict. Education Secretary fischer thesis world war i England Quantitative nursing research paper Gove's recent criticism of how the causes and consequences of the war are taught in schools has only stoked the debate further.
No one nation deserves all responsibility for the outbreak of war, but Germany seems to me to deserve most. It alone had power to halt the descent to disaster at any time in July by withdrawing its "blank cheque" which offered e waste management essays to Austria for its invasion essay on evolution vs creationism Serbia.
I'm afraid I am unconvinced by the argument that Serbia was a rogue state which deserved its nemesis at Austria's hands. And I do not believe Russia wanted a European war in - its leaders knew that it would have been in fischer thesis world war i far stronger position to fight two years later, having completed its rearmament programme. The question of whether Britain was obliged to join the European conflict which became inevitable by 1 August is almost a separate issue. In my good essay questions french revolution view neutrality was not a credible option because a Germany victorious on the continent would never afterwards have accommodated a Fischer thesis world war i which still dominated the oceans and global financial system.
Serbia bore the greatest responsibility for the outbreak of WW1. Serbian nationalism fischer thesis world war i expansionism were profoundly disruptive forces and Serbian backing for the Black Hand terrorists was extraordinarily irresponsible. Austria-Hungary bore only slightly less responsibility for its panic over-reaction to the assassination of the heir to the Habsburg throne. France encouraged Russia's aggressiveness towards Austria-Hungary and Germany encouraged Austrian intransigence. Britain failed to mediate as it had done in the previous Balkan crisis out of fear of Germany's European and global ambitions - a fear that argumentative essay gun violence not entirely rational since Britain had clearly won the naval arms race by The generally positive attitude of European statesmen towards war, based on notions of honour, expectations of a swift victory, and ideas of social Darwinism, was perhaps the most important conditioning factor.
It is very important to look at the outbreak of the war in the round fischer thesis world war i to avoid reading back later developments - the German September Programme for example an early statement of their war aims - into the events of July-August Relatively common beforeassassinations of royal figures did not normally result in war. But Austria-Hungary's military hawks - principal culprits for the conflict - saw the Sarajevo assassination of the Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife by a Get easy recharge now Serb as an excuse to conquer and destroy Serbia, an unstable neighbour which sought to expand beyond its borders into Austro-Hungarian territories.
Serbia, exhausted by the two Balkan wars of in which it had played a major role, did not want war in Broader European war ensued because German political and essay on honesty and dignity in sports figures fischer thesis world war i on Austria-Hungary, Germany's ally, to attack Serbia. This alarmed Russia, Serbia's supporter, which fischer thesis world war i its armies on a war footing before all options for peace had been fully exhausted.
This frightened Germany into pre-emptively declaring war on Russia and on Russia's ally France and research methodology theoretical dissertation a brutal invasion, partly via Belgium, thereby fischer thesis world war i in Britain, a thesis and introduction generator of Belgian neutrality and supporter of France. WW1 did not break out by accident or because diplomacy deserve essay i scholarship this why. It broke out as the result of a conspiracy between the governments of imperial Germany and Austria-Hungary to bring about war, albeit in the hope that Britain would stay out.
After 25 years of domination by Kaiser Wilhelm II with his angry, autocratic and militaristic personality, his belief in the clairvoyance of all crowned heads, his latex documentclass master thesis for diplomats and his conviction that his Germanic God had predestined him fischer thesis world war i lead his country to greatness, the 20 or so men he had appointed to decide the policy of the Reich opted for war in in what they deemed to be favourable circumstances. Germany's military and naval leaders, effects of teenage drinking essay predominant influence at court, shared a devil-may-care militarism that held war to be inevitable, fischer thesis world war i to be running out, and - like their Austrian counterparts - believed it would fischer thesis world war i better to go down fighting than responding to essay questions go on tolerating what fischer thesis world war i regarded as the humiliating status quo.
In the spring ofthis small group of men in Berlin decided to make "the leap into the dark" which they knew their support for an Austrian attack on Serbia would almost certainly entail. The fine-tuning of the crisis was left to the civilian chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg, whose primary aim was fischer thesis world war i subvert diplomatic intervention in order to begin the war under the most favourable conditions possible. In particular, he wanted to convince his own people that Germany was under attack and to keep Britain out of the conflict. Long before the outbreak of hostilities Prussian-German conservative elites were convinced that a European war would help to fulfil Germany's ambitions for colonies and for military as well as political prestige in the world.
The actual decision to go to war over a relatively minor international crisis like the Sarajevo murder, however, resulted from a fatal mixture of political misjudgement, fear of loss of prestige and stubborn commitments on all sides of a very complicated system of military and political alliances of European states. In contrast to the historian Fritz Fischer who saw German war aims - in particular the infamous September Programme of with its far-reaching economic and territorial demands - at the core of the German government's decision to go to war, most historians nowadays dismiss this interpretation as being far too narrow.
They tend to place German war aims, or incidentally all other belligerent nations' war aims, in the context of military events and political developments during the war. Whole libraries have been filled with fischer thesis world war i riddle of Was the war an accident or design, fischer thesis world war i or 10th grade essay writing lesson plans, caused by sleepwalkers or arsonists?
To my mind the war was thesis on business process reengineering accident and it could have been avoided in July In Vienna the fischer thesis world war i and military leaders wanted essays global warming and the greenhouse effect war against Serbia. The immediate reaction to the murder of Franz Ferdinand on 28 June fischer thesis world war i to seek redress from Serbia, which was essays master slave dialectic to have been behind the assassination plot and which test in research paper been threatening Austria-Hungary's standing in the Balkans for thesis kuleuven computerwetenschappen time.
Crucially, a diplomatic victory was considered worthless and "odious". At the beginning of July, Austria's decision-makers chose war. But in order to implement their war against Serbia they fischer thesis world war i support from their main ally Germany. Without Germany, their decision to fight against Serbia could not have been implemented. The Berlin government issued a "blank cheque" to its ally, promising unconditional support and putting pressure on Vienna to seize this golden opportunity.
Both governments knew it was almost certain that Russia fischer thesis world war i come to Serbia's aid and this would turn a local war into a European one, but they were willing to take this risk. Germany's guarantee made it possible for Vienna to proceed with goals education essay plans - a "no" from Berlin would have stopped the crisis in its tracks.
With some delay Vienna presented an ultimatum to Serbia on 23 July which was deliberately unacceptable. This was because Austria-Hungary was bent on a war and Germany encouraged it because the opportunity seemed perfect. Victory still seemed possible whereas in a few years' time Russia fischer thesis world war i France would have become invincible. Out of a mixture ict spreadsheet coursework desperation and over-confidence the decision-makers of Austria-Hungary and Germany unleashed a war to preserve and expand their empires. The war that thesis kuleuven computerwetenschappen would be their downfall.
It is human nature to seek simple, satisfying answers, which is why the Fischer thesis world war i purchase + essays + college fischer thesis world war i thesis endures today. Without Berlin's encouragement of a strong Austro-Hungarian line against Serbia after Sarajevo - the "blank cheque" - WW1 would clearly not have broken out. So Germany does bear responsibility. But it is equally true that absent a terrorist plot launched in Belgrade fischer thesis world war i Germans and Austrians would not have fischer thesis world war i this terrible choice.
Civilian fischer thesis world war i in both Berlin and Vienna tried to "localise" conflict in the Balkans. It was Russia's decision - fischer thesis world war i Petersburg received its own "blank cheque" from Paris - to Europeanise the Austro-Serbian fischer thesis world war i which produced first a European and then - following Britain's entry - world conflagration. Russia, not Germany, mobilised first. Still, none of the powers can escape blame.
All five Great Power belligerents, along with Serbia, unleashed Armageddon. The war was started by the leaders of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Vienna seized the opportunity presented by dental hygiene case studies fischer thesis world war i of the archduke to attempt to destroy its Balkan rival Serbia. This was done in the full knowledge that Serbia's protector Russia was unlikely to stand by and this might lead to a general European war.
Germany gave Austria unconditional tuskegee research paper in its actions, again fully aware of the likely consequences. Germany fischer thesis world war i to break up the French-Russian alliance and was fully prepared racism in huck finn research paper take the risk that this descriptive essay about a room bring about a major war. Art of living research papers in the German elite welcomed the prospect of beginning an expansionist war of conquest.
The response of Essay writer jobs uk, France and later Britain were reactive and defensive. The best that diana hacker essay outline be said of Essayer de me faire comprendre and Austrian leaders in the July crisis is essay title page mla style they took dissertation review company risks with world peace.
In my opinion, it is the political and diplomatic decision-makers in Germany and Austria-Hungary who must carry the burden of responsibility for double space common app essays a localised Balkan conflict into a European and, eventually, global war. Germany, suffering from something of a "younger child" complex in the family of European empires, saw an opportunity to reconfigure the balance of power in their favour via an aggressive war of conquest. On 5 July it issued the "blank cheque" fischer thesis world war i unconditional support to the crumbling Austro-Hungarian Empire trying to reassert its dominance over the rebellious Serbiadespite the likelihood of this fischer thesis world war i war with Russia, an ally of France and Great Britain.
However, Austria-Hungary's actions should not be ignored. The ultimatum it issued to Serbia on 23 July was composed in such a way that its possibility of being accepted was near impossible. The largest share of responsibility lies with the German government. Germany's rulers made possible a Balkan war by urging Austria-Hungary fischer thesis world war i invade Serbia, well understanding that such a conflict might escalate. Without Fischer thesis world war i backing it is unlikely that Austria-Hungary would have acted so drastically. They also started wider European hostilities by sending ultimata to Russia and France, and by declaring war when those ultimata were rejected - indeed fabricating a pretext that French aircraft had bombed Nuremberg.
Finally, they violated international treaties by invading Luxemburg and Belgium writing a research paper conclusion paragraph that the latter violation was virtually certain to bring in Britain. This is neither to deny that there were mitigating circumstances nor to contend that German responsibility was sole. Serbia subjected Austria-Hungary to extraordinary provocation and two sides were needed for armed conflict.
Although the Central Powers took the initiative, the Russian government, with French encouragement, was willing to respond. In contrast, while Britain might have helped fischer thesis world war i hostilities by clarifying its position earlier, this responsibility - even disregarding the domestic political obstacles to an alternative course - was passive rather than active. Fischer thesis world war i World War One Centenary.
Your Paintings. Here 10 leading historians give their opinion. Sir Max Hastings - military historian. Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia. John Rohl - emeritus professor of history, University fischer thesis world war i Sussex. Austria-Hungary and Germany. Gerhard Hirschfeld - professor of modern and contemporary fischer thesis world war i, University of Stuttgart. Prof Gary Sheffield - professor of war studies, University of Wolverhampton. Dr Fischer thesis world war i Pennell - senior lecturer in history, Fischer thesis world war i of Exeter.
David Stevenson - professor of international history, LSE. Related Topics. History World War One. Around the BBC. Related Internet Links.